What age is KS2 and what do children learn in KS2?

What age is KS2 and what do children learn in KS2?

People often ask: “What is KS2?” and, “What age is KS2?”   KS2 is Key Stage 2. This means it’s the second stage of a child’s education which starts at age 7 and finishes at 11.

Children will have completed Key Stage 1 which is for children between the ages of 4 and 7.

Key Stage 2 may also be referred to as Junior School and Key Stage 1 may have been referred to as Infant School. The two together, Infant and Junior may also be referred to as Primary School.

 

Key stage 2 is divided up into Years 3 4 5 and 6.

Year 3 will include children who are 7 and 8. They will have their 8th birthday in this school year.

Year 4 will include children who are 8 and 9.  They will have their 9th birthday in this school year.

Year 5 will include children who are 9 and 10.  They will have their 10th birthday in this school year.

Year 6 will include children who are 10 and 11.  They will have their 11th birthday in this school year.

 

What age is KS2?
What age is KS2?

 

Lower Key Stage 2

Lower key stage 2 is made up of year 3 and year 4.

 

Upper Key Stage 2

Upper key stage 2 is made up of year 5 and year 6.

 

September 1st

September 1st is an important date in the school year. It is the first day of the school year.

A child who is 7 on the 31st of August will be in year 3 I would be one of the youngest children in the year group. A child who is 7 on the 1st of September would be in Year 2 and would be one of the oldest children in the year group but still in Key Stage 1.

 

Infant, Junior and Primary Schools

In most parts of England, Key Stage 2 children will go to either a Junior School or a Primary School. A Junior School will just contain Key Stage 2 children and a Primary School will have Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 children.

 

Class sizes

Most key stage two children will be in a classroom size of up to about 30 children.

 

School sizes

School sizes vary tremendously.

One-form entry schools have one new class each year, whereas 4-form entry schools have four new classes joining the school each year.

A one-form entry Junior School will have four classes and about 120 children. In a one-form entry Primary School, there will be seven classes and about 210 students.

Junior schools with a 4-form entry have 16 classes and around 480 students, while primary schools with a 4-form entry have 28 classes with approximately 840 students.

Obviously, this means that children can have very different experiences of primary school just because of the size of the community they are joining.

At the other end of the scale, you can have very small schools in villages with just a few pupils who work in mixed-age groups.

 

What do children learn in Key Stage 2?

KS2 school children are required to study the following national curriculum subjects:

·         English – speaking and listening; reading; reading comprehension; writing, including stories, non-fiction, persuasive writing, spelling, punctuation and grammar (known as SPaG).

·         maths – number and place value; addition and subtraction; multiplication and division; measurement; fractions, decimals and percentages; statistics; geometry

·         science – plants and animals; living things and habitats; rocks; light, reflection and shadows; forces and magnets; electricity; states of matter; and sound.

·         design and technology – designing and making things evaluating their ideas and applying the technical knowledge that they are gaining in science, cooking and nutrition are included in the design and technology curriculum.

·         history – changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age; the Roman empire and its impact on Britain; Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots; the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the kingdom England to the time of Edward the Confessor; a local history study; study of an aspect of British history after 1066; looking at some of the achievements of the earliest Civilizations perhaps things like the Indus Valley, ancient Egypt or ancient China; ancient Greece including Greek life, achievements and Influence; the study of a non-European society that contrasts with British society, so that could be something like: an early Islamic Society, a Mayan society or a west African Society

·         geography – key topics include geographical skills such as being able to map the world what is longitude and latitude understanding time zones understanding maps including things like contours, keys and symbols; children should also explore different types of places such as the Lake District or a mountainous area; they learn about the Natural World so things like mountains, weather and climate, biomes, rivers and oceans, earthquakes and volcanoes. They also learn about human geography which would include things like settlements, economic activity and trade; and also, about sustainability and plastics; issues around natural resources, fossil fuels and renewable energy. They should also do some fieldwork where they can put into practice the skills that they learnt in the other sections, so not just how to read a map but actually reading a map; they might do an investigation and then analyse present and evaluate their findings.

·         art and design – practising art, craft and design techniques; learning about great artists, architects and designers in history.

·         music – singing and playing musical instruments and some musical composition

·         physical education (PE), including swimming – throwing and catching or running and jumping either as skills in themselves or as part of a game, for instance, football, cricket, hockey, netball, rounders, badminton, tennis.

·         computing – learn to use technology safely particularly internet safety, design computer programs, take photographs and edit them and create digital music

·         ancient and modern foreign languages – learn games and songs, some conversational skills and some reading and writing.

While religious education (RE) must be provided in schools, parents are entitled to withdraw their children from the lessons.

Among the other subjects many schools teach are:

·         personal, social and health education (PSHE)

·         citizenship

 

KS2 SATs

Although children must learn about many different subjects, they only have tests in three subjects: English, maths and science. These tests are called SATs.

These tests are taken at the end of year 6. These are used both to see how children have progressed and for the government to see how successful schools have been.

 

What does SATs stand for?

SATs stands for Statutory Assessment Tests although you’ll often see them called standard assessment tests.

 

The National Standard for KS2

The National Standard for children is that they are expected to reach a scaled score of 100 on the KS1 and KS2 SATs. A child who achieves a scaled score of 100 or more will have been deemed to have reached or exceeded the expected standard for that subject.

Children in KS2 are given a scaled score for maths, English and science in their SATs exams.

 

Conclusion

Even though they’re quite young, 7-11, key stage two children are expected to learn quite a range of subjects in some depth. Parents are often surprised at the level of difficulty of the tests that are taken in Year 6 when they come across them the first time.

 

Short video in which I talk through the “What age is KS2?” table.

How Is Maths Evident In Children’s Everyday Lives?


How Is Maths Evident In Children’s Everyday Lives?

When looking at different ways of supporting children’s learning it is important to ask the question, “how is maths evident in children’s everyday lives?”

If we incorporate this into natural discussions and living this will support what they are learning in formal settings.

One way to do this is to consider different areas of the home and then outside.  In this article, I will concentrate on the kitchen.

My suggestions will be divided into KS1 and then KS2 and beyond.  These are only rough guides.

Some pre-school children will be ready to try out some of the activities under Key Stage 1.

A child’s success isn’t based on where they start, but on where they finish. Continuing education is more important than learning something by a specific age, so don’t worry if your child isn’t able to do something that you expected them to, just gently guide them in the right direction and try to make it fun for both of you.

Maths in Children’s Everyday Lives in the Kitchen

Finding maths in the kitchen is perhaps the easiest and most obvious place to start so that is why I have chosen it for this article.

Maths in the kitchen

KS1 Children

Counting – let’s start with counting.

There are endless things in the kitchen that you can count:

– Ingredients, jars tins, saucepans, cutlery, pasta pieces, and so on.

Then, you can use a multitude of questions rather than just asking children to count something. At other times you can just explain what you’re doing so that they hear appropriate vocabulary.

“How many eggs were there altogether?”

“How many eggs have I got left?”

“How many eggs have I used?”

” Auntie Sue and Jack are coming for dinner today. How many knives and forks will we need?”

“There are already 3 forks on the table. How many more do we need?”

Cutlery

Groups of…

Use inexpensive ingredients to experiment with making groups of different sizes.

“Using pasta pieces can you make me 3 groups of 4?”

“Now make me two groups of 6.”

“Which is the biggest? How do you know?”

These could be painted and then glued onto a piece of paper in appropriate groups and kept as evidence of an investigation, or just as a piece of artwork that the children like looking at.

Pasta

Measuring

Measuring is perhaps the most obvious thing to do in the kitchen that uses maths.

This could be part of a cooking activity or it could just be done on its own.

“Measure out 3 cups of flour.”

“How much does this egg weigh?”

“Add 300ml of milk.”

“Which is heavier, stevia or sugar?”

“Which spoon is the longest?”

Measuring

Position

The position is part of the maths curriculum for younger children.

“Please take out the top box.”

” I’m going to put the cake on the middle shelf.”

“Let’s put some icing on top of the cake.”

“Take the orange out of the box.”

Box of oranges

Fractions

” I’m going to eat half a muffin.”

“Let’s cut this apple into quarters.”

“I want to put this cake into 6 pieces. First I’m going to cut it in half, next I’m going to cut each half into 3 pieces so I’m going to cut it into thirds. This will give me 6 pieces altogether as 2 x 3 is 6.”

An eighth of an apple tart

Shapes

“Are there any cubes in the kitchen?”

“This rolling pin is a cylinder shape.”

“What shapes can you see in the Toblerone box?”

Rolling pin maths in children's everyday lives

KS2 Children – and beyond

Have a look at the sections above. Some of the KS1 questions can be adapted for KS2

These suggestions and questions are just a very general guideline. You’ll need to adapt them depending on the age and ability of your child.

 

Money

Make a shopping list and then estimate how much the total bill is likely to be.

“I’m going to get us two fish and one portion of chips. That should cost us £10.54. What change should I get from £20?”

“Here is £10. Go to the ice cream van outside and choose three different ice creams. Make sure it comes to less than £6 as I need £4 in change for the car park later tonight.”

Fish and chips

Food

“How many potatoes do you think we should cook for the four of us?”

“How much do they weigh?”

“What weighs the most – the cauliflower or the cabbage?”

“What’s the difference?”

“Is it cheaper to eat chips or baked potatoes?”

“How did you work that out?”

“Is there more fat in a pan au chocolat or an almond croissant?”

“What is the difference as a percentage?”

“Which of these soups has the greatest percentage of vegetables in it?”

“Which is better value- a multipack of 24 bags of crisps costing £4.15, or a 6-pack of crisps costing £1.05?”

“How much money could you save using a box of milkshake powder and milk compared with buying ready-made milkshakes?”

Pastries

Cooking

” How hot does the oven have to be?”

“How long does it usually take to heat up to that temperature?”

“Shall we time it?” ” Let’s guess and see who is nearest.”

“How long will it take to cook?”

“If I put it in at 3 when will it be ready?”

“If I want it to be ready by 6 when do I have to put it in the oven?”

“In what order should I put things into the oven, so that everything is ready by 7:30?”

Labels

Looking at labels on food can be a huge source of inspiration.

You can find the same sort of information on online shopping sites

Online shopping sites

Online shopping sites have huge amounts of data. You can spend quite a long time on any one product or do some comparisons.

As an example, on on on I’m going to look at a tin of Heinz vegetable soup on the Tesco website:

https://www.tesco.com/groceries/en-GB/products/258147794

Heinz vegetable soup photo

So here we have a photo and we can immediately start discussing the picture.

“What is the soup going to have in it, do you think?”

Then we can have a look at the offers.

“How much is each tin if you buy 4 of them?”

“How much is each tin  if you buy by 8 of them?”

“How accurate is 24p for 100g for one tin?”

“Explain your answer.”

“Would you pay more for 7 tins or 8 tins?”

Nutritional values

Nutritional values

You’ll notice nutritional values like these on all foods in the UK.

In just this one little diagram we have weights, decimals, percentages, comparisons, ratios and conversions! No wonder some schools do whole topics around food labels.

These figures show the recommended maximum that any adult should eat within one day.

“If someone lived off soup for a day, how many tins should they eat as a maximum so as not to go over any of the recommended amounts?”

“Find a recipe for vegetable soup and compare the amount of salt that goes into a homemade recipe and a tin of soup. What do you notice?”

“What is 5% as a fraction?”

“What is the ratio of saturates to fats?”

Ingedients

Ingredients

Finally let’s have a look at the ingredients.

“How much water do you think there is in this can?” – you don’t have to know the answer to all the questions, you can just ponder some of them.

“Why don’t they give the percentage for all of the ingredients?”

“Do you think they ought to?”

“What is the ratio of tomatoes to peas by weight?”

“Could you make up a soup recipe and include the percentage of each ingredient?”

Finally…

I’m sure that as you have been reading this article you will have been thinking of lots of ideas of your own and they will be the best ones.

Also, listen out for your children’s questions. They will be even more interested in exploring what possible answers are if they have come up with the question themselves.

Of course, their questions won’t sound quite like my one did.

They might be more like:

“Where is my cup?”

“Why is soup so runny?”

“Why don’t you cut bigger pieces of cake?”

“Can’t you add more salt when you’re cooking?” – ok this might be from an older person! But you could explore it as a family.

 

Where next:

Try my Online Fractions Games page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hundreds Chart Missing Numbers

Hundreds Chart Missing Numbers

Some children love the Hundreds Chart Missing Numbers activities and they are also very useful. There are lots of places on the web where you can find them.  I have chosen some websites here that do a bit more.

 

Reversed Hundreds Chart With Missing Numbers

What I also wanted was to be able to have a reversed hundreds chart. I was trying to figure out a way to create using Excel but although I could create the numbers, I couldn’t figure out how how to get the missing numbers.

Then I found this site.  It gives lots of different options.

You can have straightforward missing numbers and there are lots of fonts and colours to choose from. Then you can just click randomise to give you lots of different grids using the same options.

Hundreds chart missing numbers
Hundreds chart missing numbers

However, it is the “Edit Numbers” bit that really excites me!

Click on that and you get this pop up:

As you can see, you can use negative numbers and decimals and even change the increments. So by starting at 100 and setting the increments at -1, I have what I am after.

 

 

https://www.senteacher.org/printables/Mathematics/37/HundredSquarePrinter.html

Multiplication tables

4x Table

By starting at 4 and choosing an increment of 4, I can take the 4 x table all the way to 100 x 4.

One thing that struck me by looking at it, in this format, was that I realised why the 4 x table has the last digit 4,8,2,6,0, pattern running through it.  4×5=20 and so you are adding 20 to 2 to get to 24, 20 to 8 to get to 28, 20 to 12 to get to 32 and so on.

What else might your children notice?

What questions might you ask?

In the table are the numbers: 12, 112, 212, 312.  Would 412 be there if we carried on? Why or why not?

 

 

11 x table

What do you notice here?

Take a look at any 3-digit answer where the two outside numbers add up to the number in the centre.  In all these cases the two outside numbers will be the number of times 11 goes into the three-digit number.

For example,  594, 5+4=9,   and 54×11=594

If you have a 3-digit number where the two outside numbers do not add up to the number in the centre, then take away 1 from the first digit in order to work out how many times 11 goes into the whole number.

For example, 836,   8+6=14, so take 1 away from the first digit,  76×11=836.

You can use this information to help you multiply two-digit numbers by 11.

For example 35,   add 3 and 5 together to make 8 and your answer will be 358.  so 35 x 11 equals 358.

For example 38,  add 3 and 8 together to make 11 and your answer will be 418.   What you did here was to put the 11 in between these two numbers, but then to add Decrease the number in the hundreds column by 1. After all, multiplying by 11 is just multiplying by 10 and then multiplying by 1.By doing this as a column addition and you’ll see what I mean.

380 +

38

 

Take a look at some of the other tables and see what else you might notice.  Let me know what you spot in the comments area below.

Also, see How to teach multiplication tables

 

Some other websites which allow you to print off a free hundreds chart.

HomeSchoolMath.net

https://www.homeschoolmath.net/worksheets/number-charts.php

On this page, you can make a variety of pre-prepared charts but towards the bottom of the page there is also a “Number Chart Worksheet Generator”.

This allows you to create hundreds charts which skip numbers and you can also choose to highlight every, for example, 5th square.  In this example, I have chosen to start at 3, make my increments 3, and hight every 2nd square.

The obvious thing it shows is the 6 x table, but what else can you see?

I found myself adding up the digits of the answers.  What do you think I discovered?

 

 

Hundreds chart missing numbers
Hundreds chart missing numbers

 

 

Other types of hundreds charts

One website I enjoy using is http://www.math-aids.com/ . you can use it for free which I did for many years but then decided that there is so much on here to explore that it was really worth paying the subscription fee. This gets rid of all the adverts and gives the site a much cleaner feel.  I think the downloads are quicker as well.

Here are some of the other hundreds charts you can get.

Make puzzles for your kids to complete

http://members.math-aids.com/Hundreds_Chart/Puzzles.html

 

 

Create pictures by colouring in certain numbers

http://members.math-aids.com/Hundreds_Chart/Pictures.html

 

 

Create a hundreds chart showing whether the round up or down.

http://members.math-aids.com/Hundreds_Chart/

 

Create letters of the alphabet.

 

Is this useful?  Let me know any ideas of how you might use it.

The one thought I had would be to get children to add up the coloured numbers and see which were the most or the least.

 

 

Some games to play using the hundreds chart

Have a look at this site for some ideas of games to play with hundreds charts.

https://www.thoughtco.com/hundreds-chart-2312157

I would love to find other sites with more ideas on.

Please let me know if you find any.

 

 

Finally, you might want to look at these Youtube videos featuring hundreds charts

Here is a basic introduction to the hundreds chart.

 

Some basic patterns from Khan Academy

Adding and subtracting by 1 and 10 and how and why to use puzzle parts of the hundreds charts.

Some nice graphics on this video

Number game using puzzle pieces.

Subtraction on the 100s chart

Looking at multiples in the hundreds chart.

 

KS2 Adverbs Wordsearch

KS2 Adverbs Wordsearch

Here we have a KS2 adverbs wordsearch.

Children could use this for fun and then use some of the words they find here in their writing.

[Tweet “Each time the page is refreshed or a new size of grid is chosen, the wordsearch will be recreated from a bank of adverbs.”]

 

How To Play
  • Choose the size of the grid that you want to play.  The larger the grid the longer the words are that can be included and more words are likely to be included.
  • Look for the words. All the words can be read left to right and top to bottom.
  • Click or touch the first letter of the word and the last letter of the word.
  • The words will then be highlighted in different colours.
  • Find all the words and you will win the game.
BTW - if you have words in the grid that you were not expecting - click on the page title to refresh.  If you just have https://tutor-your-child.com showing then the words will be drawn from all of the wordsearches on the website.
Select Level:
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Also, see the link below for more about adverbs, including examples, lists, powerpoints and videos.

Adverbs KS2 – Describing a verb

 

Adverb KS2 meaning
Adverb KS2 meaning