# Teaching fractions to KS2 children

What is a good way to introduce the idea of fractions to children?

One way to introduce the idea of fractions to children is to use concrete examples and manipulatives, such as using pieces of pizza to show that a whole pizza can be divided into equal parts, and that each part is a fraction of the whole. Another way is to use visual models, such as number lines or circles divided into equal parts, to help children understand the concept of a part of a whole. It’s also important to provide children with hands-on activities and games that allow them to explore and discover fractions in a fun and interactive way.

## Here are a few examples of how you might use a pizza to introduce the concept of fractions to children:

1. Cut a pizza into equal slices and have the children count the number of slices. Then ask them to name the fraction of the pizza that each slice represents, such as 1/8 if you have 8 slices.
2. Draw a picture of a pizza and cut it into different numbers of equal slices. Ask the children to name the fractions of the pizza that each slice represents, such as 1/4 or 1/6.
3. Show the children a whole pizza and ask them to cut it into a certain number of equal slices, such as 4 slices. Then have them name the fraction of the pizza that each slice represents, such as 1/4.
4. Show the children a whole pizza and give them a number of slices, ask them to calculate how many slices are left and name the fraction of the pizza that remaining slices represent.
5. Play a game where children take turns removing slices from a whole pizza, and naming the fraction of the pizza that remains after each turn.

These are just a few examples, but the key is to make the concept of fractions concrete and relatable by using something that the children are familiar with, such as a pizza.

## What is a manipulative?

A manipulative is a physical object or material that is used to help children understand a concept or idea, such as fractions. Manipulatives can be used to model mathematical concepts, such as numbers, operations, and geometric shapes. They can also be used to explore concepts such as measurement, patterns, and data analysis. Some examples of manipulatives that can be used to teach fractions include:

1. Fraction circles or bars, which can be used to model fractions and help children understand the concept of a part of a whole.
2. Base ten blocks, which can be used to model the concept of fractions in terms of place value.
3. Linking cubes, which can be used to build models of fractions, such as a half or a quarter of a group of cubes.
4. Number lines, which can be used to model fractions and help children understand the concept of equivalent fractions.
5. Pattern blocks, which can be used to model fractions and explore geometric shapes.

Manipulatives can be an effective tool for teaching fractions because they allow children to physically manipulate and explore the concept, which can help them to understand it better.

## Here are a few examples of how you might demonstrate the concept of fractions during a family meal:

1. When preparing a sandwich, cut it into equal halves or quarters and point out how each piece is a fraction of the whole sandwich.
2. When sharing a pizza, cut it into equal slices and label them with the fraction of the pizza that each slice represents.
3. Use measuring cups to demonstrate how the parts of the recipe are related to each other. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 cups of flour and 1 cup of sugar, you can point out that the sugar is half the amount of flour in the recipe.
4. When eating a fruit salad, point out how each piece of fruit is a fraction of the whole bowl. You can also compare the relative sizes of different pieces of fruit to show how they relate to each other as fractions.
5. When eating a pie or cake, divide it into wedges and point out how each wedge is a fraction of the whole pie.

These are just a few examples, but the key is to make the concept of fractions concrete and relatable by using real-life examples, such as food. This way, children can make connections between what they are learning and what they are experiencing in everyday life.

## Here are a few other everyday scenarios where children can be introduced to the idea of fractions:

1. Cooking: When children help measure ingredients, they can be introduced to the idea of fractions by comparing the relative amounts of different ingredients. For example, if a recipe calls for 1/2 cup of sugar, children can be shown how to measure out half a cup of sugar.
2. Shopping: When children help with grocery shopping, they can be introduced to the idea of fractions by comparing the relative sizes or prices of different items. For example, if a can of beans is £1.50 and another can is £2.00, children can be shown how to compare the prices as fractions of a pound.
3. Time: Children can be introduced to the idea of fractions of an hour by using a clock with a minute hand. For example, you can ask a child to point to the minute hand when the time is 1/4 of an hour, or 15 minutes.
4. Money: Children can be introduced to the idea of fractions of a dollar by using real or play money. For example, you can ask a child to show you 1/4 of a dollar using four quarters or to show you 1/3 of a dollar using three dimes.
5. Sports: Children can be introduced to the idea of fractions by using examples from sports. For example, you can explain how a basketball game is divided into four quarters, or how a soccer game is divided into two halves.
6. Nature: Children can be introduced to the idea of fractions by observing the natural world. For example, you can explain how a flower is divided into petals, or how a tree is divided into branches.

These are just a few examples, but the key is to make the concept of fractions concrete and relatable by using real-life examples and everyday scenarios that children can easily relate to.

## Here are a few examples of how you might use more complicated fractions to introduce the concept of fractions in everyday scenarios:

1. Cooking: When cooking with children, you can use fractions to explain more advanced measurements. For example, you can use 3/4 cup of flour, 1/3 cup of sugar, or 2/5 of a teaspoon of salt. You can also use fractions to help children understand how to double or halve a recipe.
2. Shopping: When shopping with children, you can use fractions to compare prices of different items and help children understand the concept of discounts. For example, if an item is on sale for 20% off, you can explain that the item is now 4/5 of its original price.
3. Time: You can use fractions of an hour to help children understand the concept of elapsed time. For example, you can ask a child to tell you how much time has passed between 9:15 am and 10:30 am. The answer is 75/60 of an hour (or 1 hour and 15 minutes)
4. Money: You can use fractions of a dollar to help children understand the concept of change. For example, if the cost of an item is £3.75 and a child gives you £5, you can explain that the child will receive £1.25 in change, which is 1/4 of a pound.
5. Sports: You can use fractions to explain the concept of score in different sports. For example, in a soccer game, you can explain that a team scored 2/3 of the total goals or in baseball, you can explain that a player had a batting average of 3/5.
6. Nature: You can use fractions to explain the concept of symmetry in nature. For example, you can explain that a butterfly’s wings are divided into 2/3 and 1/3 or that a snowflake is divided into 8/8.

It is important to note that when introducing more complicated fractions, it’s also important to provide children with hands-on activities and games that allow them to explore and discover fractions in a fun and interactive way.

## Here are a few games that can be used to explore fractions in a fun and interactive way:

1. Fraction War: This is a card game where players are dealt cards with fractions on them, and they take turns laying down cards. The goal is to lay down a card with a larger value than the previous card. Players can compare fractions by finding a common denominator and comparing the numerators.
2. Fraction Bingo: This game uses bingo cards with fractions on them, and players take turns drawing cards with fractions on them. The goal is to be the first player to get a bingo by covering all the fractions on their card.
3. Fraction Race: This game is played with a game board and game pieces. The game board is divided into spaces with fractions on them, and players take turns rolling a die and moving their game piece to the corresponding space. The goal is to be the first player to reach the finish line.
4. Fraction Memory: This game uses cards with fractions on them, and players take turns flipping over cards to find matching pairs. The goal is to find all the matching pairs as quickly as possible.
5. Fraction Fill-in: This game is played with a game board and game pieces. The game board has spaces with fractions on them, and players take turns placing their game pieces on the corresponding spaces. The goal is to fill in all the spaces on the game board.
6. Fraction Domino: This game uses dominoes with fractions on them, and players take turns laying down dominoes to build a chain. The goal is to be the first player to lay down all their dominoes.

These are just a few examples, but there are many other games and activities that can be used to explore fractions. The key is to make the concept of fractions concrete and relatable by using hands-on activities and games that allow children to explore and discover fractions in a fun and interactive way.

## There are many websites that allow children to explore fractions in a fun and interactive way. Some of the best ones include:

1. Coolmath4kids.com: This website offers interactive games, puzzles, and activities that help children learn about fractions in a fun way.
2. Funbrain.com: This website offers a variety of interactive games and activities that help children learn about fractions, including a game called “Fraction Sorter” where children sort fractions by size.
3. Education.com: This website offers a wide range of interactive games and activities that help children learn about fractions, including a game called “Fraction Frenzy” where children use visual models to compare fractions.
4. Khanacademy.org: This website offers interactive tutorials and practice problems that help children learn about fractions.
5. BBC Bitesize: This website offers interactive games and activities that help children learn about fractions in an engaging way, along with videos and explanations that help children to understand the concepts.
6. IXL.com: This website offers interactive practice problems and quizzes that help children to learn and reinforce their understanding of fractions.

These websites offer interactive activities and games that can help children to understand fractions better by making it fun and interactive. It’s also important to note that some of these websites may require a subscription to access all their features.

I hope you find these helpful and perhaps you can let us know in the comments, what has worked for your child.

### 2 thoughts on “Teaching fractions to KS2 children”

1. Daniel V.

Hey there, Tutor Your Child! I read your blog post on teaching fractions to KS2 children, and I found it to be very informative and helpful.

One thing I particularly appreciated about your post was the emphasis you placed on making learning fun. I think this is so important, especially for children who might find fractions to be a bit intimidating or confusing at first. By incorporating games and other interactive activities into their learning, kids can develop a more positive attitude towards fractions and be more motivated to keep practising and improving their skills.

Another aspect of your post that I found valuable was your emphasis on the real-world applications of fractions. As you noted, fractions are all around us, from cooking to shopping to measuring things around the house. By helping children see the practical uses of fractions in their daily lives, parents can help them develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of this important mathematical concept.

Overall, I thought your post was well-written and full of great advice. Keep up the good work, and I’m sure many parents will find your tips helpful in teaching their kids about fractions!

1. Julia

Thanks Daniel,

I am keen on making learning fun and I think this is particularly important if children are struggling with a concept, and you are right – seeing real-world applications helps understanding in a straight-forward way.

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